|Nations||Period of existence in the Peninsula|
|Roman Republic||218 BC - 27 BC|
|Roman Empire||27 BC - 395 AD|
|Cantabrian Wars||29 BC - 19 BC|
- Statilius Taurus make the first important roman intervention against the tribes of Northern Meseta, beginning the Cantabrian Wars.
- Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa divides Hispania into three parts, namely dividing Hispania Ulterior into Baetica (basically Andalusia) and Lusitania (including Gallaecia and Asturias) and attaching Cantabria and the Basque Country to Hispania Citerior.
- The emperor Augustus returns to Hispania and makes a new administrative division, leaving the provinces as follows: Provincia Hispania Ulterior Baetica (Hispania Baetica), whose capital is Corduba (presently Córdoba); Provincia Hispania Ulterior Lusitania, whose capital is Emerita Augusta (now Mérida); Provincia Hispania Citerior, whose capital is Tarraco (Tarragona), later known as Tarraconensis.
- The Emperor Caesar Augustus, establishes his base in Segisama (near Burgos), beginning a major campaign against the Cantabrians.
- Augustus give Brigantum, the camp of Augustan Asturica, to the Brigaeci as a reward for their help. Additionally, he share out land in the plains to the allies. However, later the Asturians join the Cantabrians in the common defense.
- The roman general Carisius attack the Astur armies, pursuing them to Mons Medullius. The Roman legions besiege this mountain, but the Astur soldiers prefer to commit suicide rather than surrender.
- Augustus retire to Tarraco, presumably because of sickness.
- The Astures and Cantabri surrender to Rome, ending the Cantabric Wars.