Small Iberia 1500BC
Small Iberia 1300BC
Active Iberia 300BC
Small Iberia 206BC
Small Iberia 196BC
Iberia 1300BC
Nations Period of existence in the Peninsula
Canaan (Phoenicia) 1104 BC - c. 500 BC
Carthage c. 400 BC - 206 BC
Greek colonies 575 BC - 45 BC

1104 BC

  • Phoenicians found the first walled city Gadir now Cadiz as a trading post.

10th century BC

  • Development of Tartessos, the first Iberian State mentioned in writing sources, a centralized Monarchy brought about under Phoenician influence.

9th century BC

  • The Castro Village culture appears in the northwestern part of the peninsula (roughly present-day northern Portugal, Galicia and Asturias). This culture is characterized by their walled villages and hill forts. It expanded from south to north and from the coast to the interior of the peninsula during the next centuries.
  • There are organized settlements in Olissipona (modern Lisbon) with clear Mediterranean influences.

8th century BC

  • The Celtic Hallstatt culture reaches the local Urnfields Celts of the Northeast, bringing the iron working technology to Iberia. This culture starts to expand to the nearby areas, embracing the northern region of the Levante and the upper Ebro valley.
  • The Phoenicians establish a colony in Almuñécar called Sexi.
    • Strong Phoenician influence in the city of Balsa (modern Tavira in the Algarve).

7th century BC

  • The cattle herding culture of Cogotas I is transformed into Cogotas II, mixing the Celtic culture with the Iberian culture (Celtiberians).
  • 654 BC – Phoenician settlers found a port in the Balearic Islands as Ibossim (Ibiza).

6th century BC

  • Celts penetrate in the Northwest of the Peninsula, although it has been debated whether all tribes of this area are actually Celtic, Celtizied or just native with Celtic influences.
  • Penetration of Celtic culture into the northern mountainous strip is minimal and most likely the tribes of this region remain fully pre-Indo European.
  • 575 BC - Foundation of Emporion, in the Catalan coast, by Greek colonists from Phocaea.
  • Soon afterwards the Northwest is rapidly re-Iberized from the south. This process cut the Celts of Iberia off from their continental counterparts, preventing the late Celtic culture of La Tène from affecting the peninsular Celts.
  • First form of writing in western Iberia (south of Portugal), the Southwest script (still to be translated), denotes strong Tartessian influence in its use of a modified Phoenician alphabet . In these writings the word Conii (similar to Cunetes or Cynetes, the people of the Algarve) appears frequently.

5th century BC

  • Decadence of Phoenician colonization of the Mediterranean coast of Iberia. Many of the colonies are deserted. Carthage slowly replaces the Phoenician in its former areas of dominion.
  • Tartessos disappears suddenly, probably destroyed by the Carthaginians as revenge of the Tartessian alliance with the Greeks during the battle of Alalia, in the coast of Corsica. The Turdetanians become their successors, although with a strong Carthaginian influence.

4th century BC

  • The Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus cites the word Iberia to designate what is now the Iberian peninsula, according to ancient Greek costume.
  • Further development of strong Central European (Celtic) influences and migrations in western Iberia north of the Tagus river.
  • The Autrigones, along with the Turmodigi and Belli, migrate from Gaul, overruning the entire area of the modern provinces of Santander and Burgos , where they establish their first capital Autraca or Austraca, located at the banks of the river Autra (Odra). They also gain an outlet to the sea by seizing from the Caristii further east the coastal highland region between the rivers Asón and Nervión, in the modern Vizcaya and Álava Basque provinces.
  • The Belli settle along the lower Jalón river valley alongside their neighbours and clients, the Titii.
  • The Celtici, a new wave of Celtic migration, enter deeply into Portuguese territory and settle in the Alentejo also penetrating in the Algarve.
  • The Turduli and Turdetani, probably descendants of the Tartessians, are established in the area of the Guadiana river, in the south of modern Portugal, but celtized.
  • A series of cities in the Algarve, such as Balsa (Tavira), Baesuris (Castro Marim), Ossonoba (Faro]) and Cilpes (Silves), are inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes progressively mingled with Celtic populations.
  • The Lusitanians (most probably proto-Celt) inhabit the area between the Douro and the Tagus rivers (and progressively penetrate the High Alentejo). They are neighbored to the east by the Vettones (also probably proto-Celt).

3rd century BC

  • The Celtic Calaicians or Gallaeci inhabit all the region above the Douro river (modern Galicia and northern Portugal).
  • The Autrigones are driven out from southern Autrigonia (the western Burgos region) by the Turmodigi and the Vaccaei, who seize the Autrigones’ early capital Autraca.
  • The Belli join the Celtiberian confederacy alongside the Arevaci, Lusones and Titii, with whom they develop close political and military ties.
  • The Turboletae settle in the modern Teruel province.