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Timeline


3rd Century BC

  • 226 BC - Hasdrubal the Fair, who rule relatively independently of Carthage, sign the Ebro treaty with Rome, which fix the river Ebro as the boundary between the two powers. Under the terms of the treaty, Carthage may not expand north of the Ebro, as long as Rome likewise may not expand to the south of the river.[1]
  • 219 BC - Beginning of the siege of Saguntum by the Carthaginians. The city call for Roman aid and the Roman Senate sends envoys to declare the city under Roman protection, which is disregarded by Hannibal.[2]
  • 218 BC
    • Hannibal Barca takes Saguntum with the aid of the Turboletae and departs for the Italian peninsula in order to attack the Romans in their own territory. His younger brother Hasdrubal Barca is left in the command of the Carthaginian armies in Iberia.[2]
    • Beginning of the Second Punic War between Carthage and Rome.[2]
    • A Roman army under Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus defeat an outnumbered Carthaginian army near Cissa, thus gaining control of the territory north of the Ebro River that Hannibal had just subdued a few months prior in the summer. This is the first battle the Romans ever fought in Iberia.[2]
    • Scipio and the Roman army winter at Tarraco. Hasdrubal retire to Cartagena after garrisoning allied towns south of the Ebro.[2]
  • 217 BC
    • Hasdrubal Barca launch a joint expedition to destroy the Roman base north of the Ebro River, but is defeated after a surprise attack by the Roman ships, who completely annihilate the Carthaginian naval contingent.[3]
    • After the battle of Ebro River, Hasdrubal dismiss the Iberian crews, sparking a rebellion in the Trudetani tribe.
    • During the fall, Publius Cornelius Scipio joins his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, reinforcing the Roman troops.[3]
  • 216 BC
    • The Scipio brothers raid Barcid possessions in Iberia and Balearic Islands and recruit auxiliary troops from Iberian tribes, consolidated their hold north of the Ebro River. They also encourage Iberian tribes friendly with the Romans to raid tribes loyal to Carthage beyond the Ebro.
    • Hasdrubal spend the year in subduing the Iberian tribes, with little effort made to confront the Romans.
  • 215 BC
    • The Romans lay siege to Ibera, a small Iberian town allied to Carthage. Hasdrubal march north with his field army to the Ebro, but besiege a town allied with the Romans across Dertosa instead. The Scipios lift their siege and move to engage Hasdrubal, defeating him in the battle of Dertosa.[4]
    • The Romans retake Saguntum and go deeper into Iberia.
  • 212 BC - The Romans and their Edetani allies invade Turboletania, seize the capital Turba and raze it to the ground, selling his residents to slavery.[5]
  • 211 BC
  • 210 BC
  • 209 BC - The three Carthaginian armies remain separated, and their generals at odds with each other, thus giving the Romans a chance to deal with them one by one.
  • 208 BC
    • Scipio move against Hasdrubal, whose force wintered at Baecula, inflicting great losses.[4]
    • After the battle, Hasdrubal lead his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul, and subsequently into Italy with a mostly Gallic force in an ill-fated attempt to join his brother Hannibal.
    • Scipio retire his army to Tarraco, and manage to secure alliances with most of the native Iberian tribes, who switch side after the recent Roman successes.
  • 207 BC
    • Carthaginian reinforcements land in Iberia under Hanno, who soon join Mago Barca. Together they raise a powerful army by heavy recruiting of Celtiberians.
    • Hasdrubal Gisco advance his army from Gades into Andalusia.
    • Scipio send a detachment under Silanus to strike Mago first. Achieving complete surprise, Silanus fall on the Carthaginian camps, dispersing Mago’s Celtiberians and capturing Hanno.
  • 206 BC
    • Battle of Ilipa (near Seville) between Roman legions, commanded by Scipio Africanus, and Carthaginian armies, commanded by Hasdrubal Barca and Mago. Roman victory that results in the evacuation of Iberia by the Punic commanders.[4]
    • Gadir surrenders without a fight to the Romans.
  • 205 BC - The exhausted Turboletae sue for peace, on which the Roman Senate force them to pay a huge compensation to the surviving citizens of Saguntum.
  • 202 BC - End of the Second Punic War with the defeat of Hannibal Barca in the Battle of Zama in North Africa.[4]
  • 200 BC - The Latin poet Quintus Ennius records, for the first time, the use of the word Hispania to designate the Iberian peninsula (from the Carthaginian name).

2nd Century BC

  • 197 BC
  • 196 BC - The Tuboletae revolt is crushed by Q. Minucius, Praetor of Hispania Citerior, in a pitched battle near the ruins of Turba. Their devastated lands are divided among the Bastetani and Edetani, resulting in their total disappearance.
  • 195 BC - Cato the Elder becomes consul, assuming the command of the whole of Hispania. Cato first put down the rebellion in the northeast, then march south and put down the revolt by the Turdetani.[7]
  • 193 BC - Consul Marco Fulvio Flaco defeats a coalition of Vacceos, Vettones and Lusones near Toletum (Toledo). The rebelling forces take refuge in the Lusone city of Contrebia Belaisca, which is taken by the consul. The rebellion is over.[8]
  • 181 BC
    • The Belli are forced to accept roman suzerainty by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.[8]
    • Several tribes along the Ebro, especially the Lusones, rebel against Roman rule, invading Hispania Ulterior, Ebro valley and Iberic Levante in search of a lack of land on which to live. Beginning of the First Celtiberian War.[8]
  • 180 BC
    • Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, proconsul of Hispania Citerior, frees the city of Caravis (Magallón), a roman allie, from the Celtiberians.[8]
    • Gracchus conquers Contrebia and the vicinities, dividing this region with the indigenous roman allies and founding Gracurris (Alfaro) for the dispossessed Celtiberians.[8]
  • 179 BC - Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus defeats the Celtiberian coalition in the battle of Moncayo, ending the 1st Celtiberian War.[8]
  • 155 BC - Under the command of Punicus first and Cesarus after, the Lusitanians and Vettones reach Gibraltar. There they are defeated by the Praetor Lucius Mummius. Beginning of the Lusitanian War.[9]
  • 154 BC
    • Lusitanians, under Cesarus, pillage through Baetica (modern Andalusia).
    • Rome forbid the enlargement of the fortification of Segeda, capital of the Belli, considering an infraction to the treaty with Gracchus in 179 BC. However, the Belli continue the enlargement. Beginning of the 2nd Celtiberian War.[8]
  • 153 BC
    • With the advance of the roman legions led by the Consul Quintus Fulvius Nobilior, the inhabitants of Segeda take refuge in Numantia, a city of the Arevaci tribe.[8][10]
    • Nobilior destroys the city of Segeda, takes Ocilis (Medinaceli), but is ambushed by the Belli General Caros, leader of the Celtiberian coalition, at the battle of Ribarroya, at the Baldano river valley.[8][10]
    • Nobilior arrives at the city of Numantia, where he spend the winter without taken it.[10]
  • 152 BC - Marcus Claudius Marcellus replaces Nobilior as Consul and takes the Celtiberian cities of Ocilis and Nertobriga. Entrapped, the Numantines surrender. End of the 2nd Celtiberian war.[10]

See Also


Bibliography


References


  1. Goldsworthy, 2000, p. 144
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Livius, XXI
  3. 3.0 3.1 Livius, XXII
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Bagnall, 2005
  5. Livius, XXIV
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Livius, XXVI
  7. Livius, XXXI
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 Appian, IX, p. 41-45
  9. Appian, XII, p. 56-60
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Appian, X, p. 46-50